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Annual Report 2014/15Detailed Picture

Glosary

Bacterial strains
Subsets of bacterial species differing from other bacteria of the same species by some identifiable difference.
Bacteriophage
Any virus that infects bacteria. Can be used as an alternative to antibiotics. Bacteriophages are a major problem in the dairy industry due to their ability to inhibit starter cultures.
Bioscience
The functions or problems of living organisms.
Bulk starter
A starter culture made by the dairies.
Coloring foodstuff
Food with coloring properties. The ingredients are processed from edible, natural sources such as fruits and vegetables.
Compounding
The process of combining different bacterial strains to produce a starter culture.
Culture
The growing of microorganisms in a specially prepared nutrient medium and the resultant growth.
Diacetyl
A compound that is a natural byproduct of fermentation that gives butter its characteristic taste and is used in the manufacturing of natural and artificial flavors.
Direct fed microbials
Probiotics added to feed
Direct Vat Set (DV S®)
A highly concentrated culture added directly to the cheese vat eliminating the need for dairies to produce their own bulk starter cultures.
EFSA
European Food Safety Authority — the EU risk assessment body for food and feed safety.
Feed conversion
A measure of an animal's efficiency in converting feed mass into increased body mass
Gastrointestinal infections
Illnesses with a spectrum of severity caused by ingestion of harmful bacteria or their over abundance in the gut.
Immune health
The result of the action of cells that protect against disease by distinguishing pathogens and tumor cells from the organism’s own healthy cells and tissues and killing the pathogens or tumor cells.
Industrial cultures
Starter cultures for the industry produced by starter culture companies such as Chr. Hansen.
Innovative cultures
New microorganisms or combinations of microorganisms.
Intestinal flora
Microorganisms that live in the digestive tract.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)
Acid-tolerant, generally non-sporulating, generally non-respiring bacteria that are associated by their common metabolic and physiological characteristics, found in decomposing plants and lactic products which produce lactic acid as the major metabolic end-product of carbohydrate fermentation.
Lactobacillus
A genus of bacteria that converts lactose and other sugars to lactic acid and used to restore a particular physiological balance. In humans it is present in the vagina and the gastrointestinal tract, where it is symbiotic and makes up a small portion of the naturally occurring flora; some species are used in the production of dairy products.
Lactose
A disaccharide that consists of galactose and glucose residues bonded through a glycosidic linkage and found in milk.
Microbial flora
The total population of microorganisms inhabiting a particular environment or niche (such as the intestines).
Natural color solutions
Food colorings extracted from natural sources such as roots, seeds and berries.
Physiology
The science of the chemical and physical functioning of living systems, a subcategory of biology.
Probiotics
Cultures with additional health benefits. Probiotic means “for life”. Probiotics ared used in both food products, especially in the dairy industry (served through our Cultures & Enzymes Division), and in dietary supplements and animal feed (served through our Health & Nutrition Division).
Rennet
A natural complex of enzymes produced in any mammalian stomach to digest the mother’s milk, and is often used in the production of cheese.
Silage
Fermented, high-moisture fodder that can be fed to ruminants (cud-chewing animals like cattle and sheep) or used as a biofuel feedstock for anaerobic digesters. It is fermented and stored in a process called ensiling or silaging, and is usually made from grass crops, including corn or sorghum or other cereals.
Silage inoculants
Special lactic acid bacteria added to crop to ferment it
Silage
Fermented, high-moisture stored fodder
Starter cultures
Microbiological cultures which are intentionally added to a substrate to initiate fermentation.
Strain selection
The selection of certain groups of microorganisms (or strains) based on specific characteristics.
Texture
The feel of a surface. Texture refers to the properties held and sensations caused by the surface of e.g. yogurt.
Viscosity
A measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by mechanical treatment such as stirring. Typically refers to the ‘thickness’ of yogurt or color product.